It’s common among Christians to interpret Paul’s statement that “all Israel will be saved” (Rom 11:25-26) to refer to mean that national Israel will be saved by God in the end or that all Jews will eventually turn to the messiah in the end times. But is that what Paul meant? How would we know? This episode discusses Paul’s statement and these questions.

Links referenced:

Summary of Christopher Zoccali, “And So All Israel Will be Saved: Competing Interpretations of Romans 11.26 in Pauline Scholarship,” Journal for the Study of the New Testament, 2008: 289-317

Staples’ article: Jason A. Staples, “What Do the Gentiles Have to Do with “All Israel”? A Fresh Look at Romans 11:25–27,” Journal of Biblical Literature 130:2 (2011): 371-390


Transcript 102 Israel Saved

Lots of Christians interested in prophecy talk about the tribulation period (aka, the “Great Tribulation”), but they never seem to get around to asking where the idea comes from. In this episode we explore the development of the eschatological tribulation idea in Second Temple Jewish literature up to and including the time of Jesus. Surprisingly, asking what the tribulation meant in the actual New Testament era is a recent strategy of scholars – and something that never happens in popular prophecy teaching.

Transcript 101 Jesus Exile Tribulation

This episode is in response to listener requests. Mike and Trey interview Rick Brannan, the information specialist for Greek New Testament products and databases at Logos Bible Software, about how we got the New Testament, the KJV-only idea, and conspiratorial views about the history and transmission of the Greek New Testament. We also talk about tools for learning about the Greek New Testament and its vocabulary. Rick is the general editor of the Lexham English Septuagint, translator of The Apostolic Fathers in English, and author of Greek Apocryphal Gospels, Fragments, and Agrapha.


Summary of how the Byzantine-Majority Text (and the Textus Receptus) gets defended against the Alexandrian. Drawn from D. A Carson, The King James Version Debate, A Plea for Realism, (Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1986), pp. 39-78

Codex Sinaiticus

Rick’s personal blog:

Rick’s Twitter: @RickBrannan

Publisher: (Appian Way Press)

Lexical Commentary on the Pastoral Epistles: First Timothy

Second Timothy: Notes on Grammar, Structure, and Syntax


Transcript 99 Greek NT Manuscript